Even after decades of observations and a visit by NASA’s Voyager 2 spacecraft, Uranus held on to one critical secret — the composition of its clouds. Now, one of the key components of the planet’s clouds has finally been verified.
A global research team that includes Glenn Orton of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, has spectroscopically dissected the infrared light from Uranus captured by the 26.25-foot (8-meter) Gemini North telescope on Hawaii’s Mauna Kea. They found hydrogen sulfide, the odiferous gas that most people avoid, in Uranus’ cloud tops. The long-sought evidence was published in the April 23rd issue of the journal Nature Astronomy.
The detection of hydrogen sulfide high in Uranus’ cloud deck (and presumably Neptune’s) is a striking difference from the gas giant planets located closer to the Sun — Jupiter and Saturn — where ammonia is observed above the clouds, but no hydrogen sulfide. These differences in atmospheric composition shed light on questions about the planets’ formation and history.
ESO’s VLT spots brand-new type of star formation
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
Dwayne Brown / Laurie Cantillo
NASA Headquarters, Washington
European Space Agency, Noordwijk, Netherlands
M. Ramy El-Maarry
University of Colorado
ESA Rosetta project scientist
NOTE: Make sure you check 0ut the accompanying Space Photo Exploration page for Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
ESO Public Information Officer
Garching bei München, Germany
Astronomers have for a long time studied the glowing, cosmic clouds of gas and dust catalogued as NGC 6334 and NGC 6357, this gigantic new image from ESO’s Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope being only the most recent one. With around two billion pixels this is one of the largest images ever released by ESO. The evocative shapes of the clouds have led to their memorable names: the Cat’s Paw Nebula and the Lobster Nebula, respectively. Credit: ES
Written by George McGinn
Cosmology and Space Research
September 27, 2016 at 4:32pm EST
In one of the most promising places in the Solar System where life may exist, astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have photographed what appears to be water vapor plumes escaping Jupiter’s moon Europa.
The team from the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore saw finger-like projections when viewing Europa as it past in front of Jupiter, according to team leader William Sparks.
The discovery occurred by accident as the team’s original proposal was to observe Europa to determine if it had an atmosphere or exosphere.
An exosphere of neon was detected on Earth’s Moon on August 17, 2015 based on study the data from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft.
Note from George McGinn: Yesterday I watched NASA’s briefing, and the Juno Spacecraft did something nearly impossible. The largest danger to the mission is the immense radiation. Jupiter’s version of Earth’s Van Allen belt have been catching huge amounts of solar radiation for 4.5 billion years. The gravity of Jupiter is so strong that it pulls more charged particles than would directly hit it. The Juno team estimated that the spacecraft will be exposed to radiation at LD25 (LD is Leathal Dose and 25 means 25 times, so 25 times the lethal dose to a human), or having 1 million dental X-rays all at once (in a space of 2 seconds). This is equal to 260 rads.
I applaud the Juno’s team, who worked almost 12 years to get this spacecraft safely in orbit. I am excited to see finally how deep the atmosphere goes, what gases make up Jupiter, and if there is a solid or semi-solid center, or just compressed gases. And can all that gas create the large magnetic field, or what is in the center, the speed of spin, and the chemical makeup.